6 Best VPNs for Bitcoin in 2020 + How to buy VPN with Bitcoin

Bitcoin (BTC)A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.

Bitcoin (BTC)A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.
  • Bitcoin (BTC) is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency that aims to function as a means of exchange that is independent of any central authority. BTC can be transferred electronically in a secure, verifiable, and immutable way.
  • Launched in 2009, BTC is the first virtual currency to solve the double-spending issue by timestamping transactions before broadcasting them to all of the nodes in the Bitcoin network. The Bitcoin Protocol offered a solution to the Byzantine Generals’ Problem with a blockchain network structure, a notion first created by Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta in 1991.
  • Bitcoin’s whitepaper was published pseudonymously in 2008 by an individual, or a group, with the pseudonym “Satoshi Nakamoto”, whose underlying identity has still not been verified.
  • The Bitcoin protocol uses an SHA-256d-based Proof-of-Work (PoW) algorithm to reach network consensus. Its network has a target block time of 10 minutes and a maximum supply of 21 million tokens, with a decaying token emission rate. To prevent fluctuation of the block time, the network’s block difficulty is re-adjusted through an algorithm based on the past 2016 block times.
  • With a block size limit capped at 1 megabyte, the Bitcoin Protocol has supported both the Lightning Network, a second-layer infrastructure for payment channels, and Segregated Witness, a soft-fork to increase the number of transactions on a block, as solutions to network scalability.

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1. What is Bitcoin (BTC)?

  • Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency that aims to function as a means of exchange and is independent of any central authority. Bitcoins are transferred electronically in a secure, verifiable, and immutable way.
  • Network validators, whom are often referred to as miners, participate in the SHA-256d-based Proof-of-Work consensus mechanism to determine the next global state of the blockchain.
  • The Bitcoin protocol has a target block time of 10 minutes, and a maximum supply of 21 million tokens. The only way new bitcoins can be produced is when a block producer generates a new valid block.
  • The protocol has a token emission rate that halves every 210,000 blocks, or approximately every 4 years.
  • Unlike public blockchain infrastructures supporting the development of decentralized applications (Ethereum), the Bitcoin protocol is primarily used only for payments, and has only very limited support for smart contract-like functionalities (Bitcoin “Script” is mostly used to create certain conditions before bitcoins are used to be spent).

2. Bitcoin’s core features

For a more beginner’s introduction to Bitcoin, please visit Binance Academy’s guide to Bitcoin.

Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO) model

A UTXO transaction works like cash payment between two parties: Alice gives money to Bob and receives change (i.e., unspent amount). In comparison, blockchains like Ethereum rely on the account model.
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Nakamoto consensus

In the Bitcoin network, anyone can join the network and become a bookkeeping service provider i.e., a validator. All validators are allowed in the race to become the block producer for the next block, yet only the first to complete a computationally heavy task will win. This feature is called Proof of Work (PoW).
The probability of any single validator to finish the task first is equal to the percentage of the total network computation power, or hash power, the validator has. For instance, a validator with 5% of the total network computation power will have a 5% chance of completing the task first, and therefore becoming the next block producer.
Since anyone can join the race, competition is prone to increase. In the early days, Bitcoin mining was mostly done by personal computer CPUs.
As of today, Bitcoin validators, or miners, have opted for dedicated and more powerful devices such as machines based on Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (“ASIC”).
Proof of Work secures the network as block producers must have spent resources external to the network (i.e., money to pay electricity), and can provide proof to other participants that they did so.
With various miners competing for block rewards, it becomes difficult for one single malicious party to gain network majority (defined as more than 51% of the network’s hash power in the Nakamoto consensus mechanism). The ability to rearrange transactions via 51% attacks indicates another feature of the Nakamoto consensus: the finality of transactions is only probabilistic.
Once a block is produced, it is then propagated by the block producer to all other validators to check on the validity of all transactions in that block. The block producer will receive rewards in the network’s native currency (i.e., bitcoin) as all validators approve the block and update their ledgers.

The blockchain

Block production

The Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Merkle tree data structure in order to organize hashes of numerous individual transactions into each block. This concept is named after Ralph Merkle, who patented it in 1979.
With the use of a Merkle tree, though each block might contain thousands of transactions, it will have the ability to combine all of their hashes and condense them into one, allowing efficient and secure verification of this group of transactions. This single hash called is a Merkle root, which is stored in the Block Header of a block. The Block Header also stores other meta information of a block, such as a hash of the previous Block Header, which enables blocks to be associated in a chain-like structure (hence the name “blockchain”).
An illustration of block production in the Bitcoin Protocol is demonstrated below.

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Block time and mining difficulty

Block time is the period required to create the next block in a network. As mentioned above, the node who solves the computationally intensive task will be allowed to produce the next block. Therefore, block time is directly correlated to the amount of time it takes for a node to find a solution to the task. The Bitcoin protocol sets a target block time of 10 minutes, and attempts to achieve this by introducing a variable named mining difficulty.
Mining difficulty refers to how difficult it is for the node to solve the computationally intensive task. If the network sets a high difficulty for the task, while miners have low computational power, which is often referred to as “hashrate”, it would statistically take longer for the nodes to get an answer for the task. If the difficulty is low, but miners have rather strong computational power, statistically, some nodes will be able to solve the task quickly.
Therefore, the 10 minute target block time is achieved by constantly and automatically adjusting the mining difficulty according to how much computational power there is amongst the nodes. The average block time of the network is evaluated after a certain number of blocks, and if it is greater than the expected block time, the difficulty level will decrease; if it is less than the expected block time, the difficulty level will increase.

What are orphan blocks?

In a PoW blockchain network, if the block time is too low, it would increase the likelihood of nodes producingorphan blocks, for which they would receive no reward. Orphan blocks are produced by nodes who solved the task but did not broadcast their results to the whole network the quickest due to network latency.
It takes time for a message to travel through a network, and it is entirely possible for 2 nodes to complete the task and start to broadcast their results to the network at roughly the same time, while one’s messages are received by all other nodes earlier as the node has low latency.
Imagine there is a network latency of 1 minute and a target block time of 2 minutes. A node could solve the task in around 1 minute but his message would take 1 minute to reach the rest of the nodes that are still working on the solution. While his message travels through the network, all the work done by all other nodes during that 1 minute, even if these nodes also complete the task, would go to waste. In this case, 50% of the computational power contributed to the network is wasted.
The percentage of wasted computational power would proportionally decrease if the mining difficulty were higher, as it would statistically take longer for miners to complete the task. In other words, if the mining difficulty, and therefore targeted block time is low, miners with powerful and often centralized mining facilities would get a higher chance of becoming the block producer, while the participation of weaker miners would become in vain. This introduces possible centralization and weakens the overall security of the network.
However, given a limited amount of transactions that can be stored in a block, making the block time too longwould decrease the number of transactions the network can process per second, negatively affecting network scalability.

3. Bitcoin’s additional features

Segregated Witness (SegWit)

Segregated Witness, often abbreviated as SegWit, is a protocol upgrade proposal that went live in August 2017.
SegWit separates witness signatures from transaction-related data. Witness signatures in legacy Bitcoin blocks often take more than 50% of the block size. By removing witness signatures from the transaction block, this protocol upgrade effectively increases the number of transactions that can be stored in a single block, enabling the network to handle more transactions per second. As a result, SegWit increases the scalability of Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks like Bitcoin and Litecoin.
SegWit also makes transactions cheaper. Since transaction fees are derived from how much data is being processed by the block producer, the more transactions that can be stored in a 1MB block, the cheaper individual transactions become.
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The legacy Bitcoin block has a block size limit of 1 megabyte, and any change on the block size would require a network hard-fork. On August 1st 2017, the first hard-fork occurred, leading to the creation of Bitcoin Cash (“BCH”), which introduced an 8 megabyte block size limit.
Conversely, Segregated Witness was a soft-fork: it never changed the transaction block size limit of the network. Instead, it added an extended block with an upper limit of 3 megabytes, which contains solely witness signatures, to the 1 megabyte block that contains only transaction data. This new block type can be processed even by nodes that have not completed the SegWit protocol upgrade.
Furthermore, the separation of witness signatures from transaction data solves the malleability issue with the original Bitcoin protocol. Without Segregated Witness, these signatures could be altered before the block is validated by miners. Indeed, alterations can be done in such a way that if the system does a mathematical check, the signature would still be valid. However, since the values in the signature are changed, the two signatures would create vastly different hash values.
For instance, if a witness signature states “6,” it has a mathematical value of 6, and would create a hash value of 12345. However, if the witness signature were changed to “06”, it would maintain a mathematical value of 6 while creating a (faulty) hash value of 67890.
Since the mathematical values are the same, the altered signature remains a valid signature. This would create a bookkeeping issue, as transactions in Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks are documented with these hash values, or transaction IDs. Effectively, one can alter a transaction ID to a new one, and the new ID can still be valid.
This can create many issues, as illustrated in the below example:
  1. Alice sends Bob 1 BTC, and Bob sends Merchant Carol this 1 BTC for some goods.
  2. Bob sends Carols this 1 BTC, while the transaction from Alice to Bob is not yet validated. Carol sees this incoming transaction of 1 BTC to him, and immediately ships goods to B.
  3. At the moment, the transaction from Alice to Bob is still not confirmed by the network, and Bob can change the witness signature, therefore changing this transaction ID from 12345 to 67890.
  4. Now Carol will not receive his 1 BTC, as the network looks for transaction 12345 to ensure that Bob’s wallet balance is valid.
  5. As this particular transaction ID changed from 12345 to 67890, the transaction from Bob to Carol will fail, and Bob will get his goods while still holding his BTC.
With the Segregated Witness upgrade, such instances can not happen again. This is because the witness signatures are moved outside of the transaction block into an extended block, and altering the witness signature won’t affect the transaction ID.
Since the transaction malleability issue is fixed, Segregated Witness also enables the proper functioning of second-layer scalability solutions on the Bitcoin protocol, such as the Lightning Network.

Lightning Network

Lightning Network is a second-layer micropayment solution for scalability.
Specifically, Lightning Network aims to enable near-instant and low-cost payments between merchants and customers that wish to use bitcoins.
Lightning Network was conceptualized in a whitepaper by Joseph Poon and Thaddeus Dryja in 2015. Since then, it has been implemented by multiple companies. The most prominent of them include Blockstream, Lightning Labs, and ACINQ.
A list of curated resources relevant to Lightning Network can be found here.
In the Lightning Network, if a customer wishes to transact with a merchant, both of them need to open a payment channel, which operates off the Bitcoin blockchain (i.e., off-chain vs. on-chain). None of the transaction details from this payment channel are recorded on the blockchain, and only when the channel is closed will the end result of both party’s wallet balances be updated to the blockchain. The blockchain only serves as a settlement layer for Lightning transactions.
Since all transactions done via the payment channel are conducted independently of the Nakamoto consensus, both parties involved in transactions do not need to wait for network confirmation on transactions. Instead, transacting parties would pay transaction fees to Bitcoin miners only when they decide to close the channel.
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One limitation to the Lightning Network is that it requires a person to be online to receive transactions attributing towards him. Another limitation in user experience could be that one needs to lock up some funds every time he wishes to open a payment channel, and is only able to use that fund within the channel.
However, this does not mean he needs to create new channels every time he wishes to transact with a different person on the Lightning Network. If Alice wants to send money to Carol, but they do not have a payment channel open, they can ask Bob, who has payment channels open to both Alice and Carol, to help make that transaction. Alice will be able to send funds to Bob, and Bob to Carol. Hence, the number of “payment hubs” (i.e., Bob in the previous example) correlates with both the convenience and the usability of the Lightning Network for real-world applications.

Schnorr Signature upgrade proposal

Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (“ECDSA”) signatures are used to sign transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.
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However, many developers now advocate for replacing ECDSA with Schnorr Signature. Once Schnorr Signatures are implemented, multiple parties can collaborate in producing a signature that is valid for the sum of their public keys.
This would primarily be beneficial for network scalability. When multiple addresses were to conduct transactions to a single address, each transaction would require their own signature. With Schnorr Signature, all these signatures would be combined into one. As a result, the network would be able to store more transactions in a single block.
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The reduced size in signatures implies a reduced cost on transaction fees. The group of senders can split the transaction fees for that one group signature, instead of paying for one personal signature individually.
Schnorr Signature also improves network privacy and token fungibility. A third-party observer will not be able to detect if a user is sending a multi-signature transaction, since the signature will be in the same format as a single-signature transaction.

4. Economics and supply distribution

The Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Nakamoto consensus, and nodes validate blocks via Proof-of-Work mining. The bitcoin token was not pre-mined, and has a maximum supply of 21 million. The initial reward for a block was 50 BTC per block. Block mining rewards halve every 210,000 blocks. Since the average time for block production on the blockchain is 10 minutes, it implies that the block reward halving events will approximately take place every 4 years.
As of May 12th 2020, the block mining rewards are 6.25 BTC per block. Transaction fees also represent a minor revenue stream for miners.
submitted by D-platform to u/D-platform [link] [comments]

What are some Problems with Bitcoin?

Bitcoin is a revolutionary technology that is already changing the world — but it is not perfect. Most notable are its ease-of-use issues that may make mainstream adoption difficult, if not impossible. Listed below are some of the existing faults with Bitcoin and its practical usage.
submitted by Boomah422 to bitcointhetrilema [link] [comments]

Proposed method to email crypto-coins directly.

Below are some ideas I have been working on to allow direct off-blockchain transfer of Bitcoin Private Keys while preventing Double-Spend and Counterfeiting . There is a reference to tamper-proof Physical Bitcoin as DA BOMB- Directly Available Bitcoin On Metal Banknotes. These Physical Bitcoins and their digitally encrypted representations are the basis for off-blockchain exchange of value. Off-Blockchain exchanges are completely private and as fast as sending an email.

FAST BITCOIN

Daily settlement between corporations, instant settlement on trading or funded shopping channels, physical bitcoin possession for investors .
Each platform which offers FAST BITCOIN will purchase a large amount of DA BOMB to power their digital envelope re-sale network. All networks will be compatible and fungible assets composed of.
When a customer places an order for DA BOMB I load a certain amount of BTC in various denominations onto a selection of bitcoin wallets, which are then manufactured as physical bitcoin.
This amount of BTC is the amount this customer can spend on the FAST BITCOIN network.
The Bitcoin the customer spends never moves on the BTC Blockchain.
The envelope containing the customer’s BTC is credited or debited a certain combination of addresses that contain a known amount of BTC, adding up to the exact amount of the transaction.
Transactions can only be made in ROUND NUMBERS of a certain resolution, such as 0.0001 BTC , and the resolution will be finer at a later date to account for the rise of value of BTC in the future.
The contents of a customer’s envelope will be maintained to allow for making change and to account for his spending or funding of his account.
The main issuer of FAST BITCOIN will be Satoshi Bitcoin Incorporated, with other platforms buying enough DA BOMB to issue their own FAST BITCOIN on their own shopping platforms.
Customers can always write to the platform and request that their remaining envelope balance be mailed to their physical address.
The envelope contents are tracked on a separate blockchain, the FAST BITCOIN blockchain.
Customers can use their physical bitcoin like paper money, or break the hologram seal and view the private key to use as regular bitcoin on the bitcoin blockchain.
Only TRUSTED NODES are on the FAST BITCOIN Blockchain. The Network is composed of the corporate members who offer FAST BITCOIN shopping at their websites, and join by invitation only. Large networks can fuel their own branded shopping tokens with FAST BITCOIN after paying a co-branding fee, or simply use FAST BITCOIN without re-branding to their own token name.
Software can equate all prices at a website to the token value of choice on the platform, so that the shopper may make purchases via FAST BITCOIN while referring to prices in stable fiat equivalent tokens, or re-branded token values.
The customer’s purchasing power varies with the price of Bitcoin, but the visible prices remain stable.
The customer may buy a StableCoin (not Tethers) to fund all or part of their account, or switch from BTC to StableCoin at will; or let the system do this for him. BTC going up, funding remains in BTC, BTC going down, Funding switches too StableCoin.
A purely electronic version of FAST BITCOIN will rely on a hardware device to store the private keys offline and always in encrypted form when connected to the internet.
There is object “A” : the FAST BITCOIN Wallet
There is object “B” : the individual private keys
The system works with a combination of Master System Key Encryption and Asymmetrical Key Encryption.
The Hardware device is called a SPLIT WALLET. It is a combination of a HOT WALLET and a COLD WALLET. The two halves of the split wallet can only communicate with each other when the device is unplugged from the device being used to access the Internet.
The Master System Key resides on the Cold Wallet and can’t be viewed without destroying the function of the Hardware Wallet.
To send bitcoin to a person on the network, the hardware wallet takes the addresses needed to add up to the desired amount and encrypts them with the PUBLIC KEY of the receiving device.
The BITCOIN CASH BLOCKCHAIN is used as a KEY SERVER to store the PUBLIC KEY of every device manufactured, linked to its registration number and owner identity. The OWNER IDENTITY is an EMAIL ADDRESS which is [[email protected]_BITCOIN.COM](mailto:[email protected]_bitcoin.com) .
The addresses are encrypted by the SYSTEM MASTER KEY , then by the RECIPIENT PUBLIC KEY and emailed to the above email address.
The whole network is sustained by a peer-to-peer email remailer network. Software on the machine used by the hardware device to connect to the INTERNET is designed to run a peer-to-peer email remailer node.
As well as sending the recipient an email via the re-mailer network, an entry is made on the BITCOIN CASH BLOCKCHAIN containing the double encrypted bitcoin private keys, recipient email address, and transaction identifier . This also contains the device registration number as part of the owner email address.
Thus even if the domain is blocked from sending email the information needed to use the bitcoin is available from the data stored on the BITCOIN CASH BLOCKCHAIN.
The value of Bitcoin Cash does not impact the cost of sending bitcoin, since the transaction sizes to record data on its blockchain are very small.

When FAST BITCOIN is sent to a recipient, he must plug his hardware device into a laptop, phone, or other internet device to download the keys to the device. At this time while the hardware device is still connected to the internet the just received FAST BITCOIN will not yet be available to spend. It will show on the device as STILL ENCRYPTED. The user unplugs the device from the internet and then transfers the amount from the COLD SIDE to the HOT SIDE of his wallet while offline. If he wishes he may leave this amount on the COLD SIDE or transfer up to the entire contents of the SPLIT WALLET to the HOT SIDE to enable immediate spending as soon as connected to the internet.
The COLD SIDE contains the SYSTEM MASTER KEY and decrypts the PRIVATE BITCOIN KEYS in order to enable spending.
The hardware device checks the bitcoin blockchain to verify the amount of bitcoin held by each bitcoin private key, and also checks that the private keys it contains map properly to the public bitcoin keys used to view the balance on the device when it is connected to the internet.

DA Bomb

Directly Available Bitcoin On Metal Banknote (Da Bomb)
Bitcoin Metal Wallet Cold Storage on BTC Blockchain. A Crypto-Currency version of money, which may be exchanged for fiat currency.
Other major cryptos such as Ethereum , LiteCoin, and Bitcoin Cash may be substituted for bitcoin without affecting the usefulness of this offering. These versions will come out later, using the same physical format. (hopefully patented)
The design of the card should be modified enough from any existing patents to be patentable itself. The manufacturing, loading and documenting of the card should be done by proprietary and open-source software. This process should be patented as well or be part of the same patent.
These are physical BTC coins, in the form of a metal card the size and shape of a credit card. The Bitcoin Wallet is composed of two sets of engraved alpha-numeric and QR codes highlighted by black ink. One set is public and is on the outside of the card. A pull-tab almost exactly like the kind on a soup can is removed from the front of the card to reveal the inner contents . This is the engraving of the private key which is required to spend the BTC. Viewing it or detecting the exact nature of this code is equivalent to ownership of the associated BTC.
The public key on the outside of the card is used to deposit to or send to the card. In normal operations the card would come loaded with a certain amount of BTC.
The cards will be protected by security features and the quality control process during their manufacture.
The cards will be dipped in a coating of compounds to indicate a unique identity for each card, with short lengths of coloured fibres and paint floating on the surface of the clear lacquer compound and creating a unique visual identity. Each card is photographed and the image file uploaded to a database with the blockchain address and item id from manufacture all associated together.
A label is created and affixed to the outside of the card. On it are the blockchain address, photo of the untampered card, and amount of BTC deposited to card.
The private keys are not retained in file form at the manufacturer’s facility, or recorded in any way.
Before the key is deleted from memory and fully erased from all data storage devices, the photo of the engraving of it is compared to the key via character recognition software. When photo verifies as true then key is deleted from memory. Now the card is tracked by my own “in-house” item id, linked in the database to the blockchain address which displays the public key, and the photo file of the card. The card is photographed twice, the photo of the private key is deleted just after verifying the engraving matches the private key. The photo of the exterior of the card showing the paint lines and fibre positions on the card is kept on file. The offline computer takes the photo of the private key, the online computer takes the photo of the card after dipping.
The card is meant to circumvent the horribly high fees associated with using BTC as a payment method. Possession of the card is deemed to be legally equivalent to the ability to spend the associated BTC available via the private key. The nature of the tamper proof and hack proof aspects of the card manufacture lends credence to the continued value of the card as it is passed through consecutive transactions. The fees which would have been normally paid to enable these transactions on the Blockchain, will now have been saved by the people utilizing the physical Bitcoin cards. The Bitcoin transactions on the Blockchain are enabled by paying fees to “bitcoin miners”, who use large amounts of energy and computing power to solve complicated mathematical problems in order to process transactions and also to earn newly created bitcoins, of which there will only ever be 21,000,000. The fees for bitcoin transactions have become so high that paying for an item with bitcoin wouldn’t make sense for anything under $280 or so; and you had better be rich enough not to care about the $30 to $75 fee to buy just about any size purchase.
Instead of this, cold wallets containing small denominations of BTC can be exchanged via strong encryption and sending password and wallet via different delivery modes; or by physical bitcoin wallets.
At any time one may pull the tab on the metal card and reveal the private key, in order to obtain control of the BTC for use in a different cold wallet, or an online wallet. You will now have to pay transaction fees as per your new wallet details.
There is an instant financial advantage as soon as a group of people trust the value of physical bitcoin in transactions. All the miner fees for each transaction done with physical bitcoin are saved by the group. These transactions are valued in BTC, worth real dollars if exchanged for dollars; but with the dollar value always changing.
Volatility is a fact of life with Bitcoin (BTC), but the market has always trended upwards if you wait long enough. And the value has often nose-dived as well, in an unpredictable manner. A lot of people are holding (or “hodling”) BTC as a very risky and speculative investment, hoping the price will go up.
There is a great demand for bitcoin and that demand is going to increase in the near future.
How will I pay to load the BTC on to the cards? The cards will be loaded on an “on-demand” order process. The cards can be made up to a certain stage, where they have been dipped in tamper-proofing but not yet labeled. Up to this point they can be any denomination (amount) of BTC. When the payment for the order is taken at the online website then the card is loaded, labeled and shipped to the customer.
Besides the metal coin wallets denominated in various amounts of BTC; there will be “piggy-bank” versions of the card available. The BTC is loaded onto the card via the visible wallet public key engraved on the front of the card. The card owner can be paid debts owed to him via the public key. The card owner can send any amount of BTC to this receive address and it will become associated via the blockchain with the private key hidden inside the card. To spend the BTC loaded onto the card he will have to view the private key and send it to the hot wallet he uses online. Technical advice about fees, security, hacking and safety will be available at the company website, as well as many other helpful resources.
The denominated versions of the card are identical to the piggy-bank versions except for the label. The label covers the “receive” address on the denominated versions, as no further deposits to the blockchain are needed. The label on the piggy-bank version doesn’t cover the public key address, has a photo of the card and the manufacturer’s ID number. It also has a link to the Blockchain.info webpage associated with the public key address. Anyone with this address can see how much BTC is associated with the Public Key shown here.
Thus the intact tamper-proof BTC Card can be used with confidence, as the public key can be viewed on the Blockchain by anyone. As long as the amount on the card label matches the amount shown on the Blockchain.info webpage then the card’s private key can be trusted. This renders the card a form of “trust-less” currency equivalent to legal tender in value and usefulness .
The card format and manufacturing process is tested to obtain a hack proof product. The private key is not detectable by examination or any technical means without opening the pull-tab. This is essential to prevent theft and fraud. The card can not be opened, viewed , and sealed again.
A card without a label would be suspect, a card which had been opened and re-sealed obvious. Checking the blockchain address reveals the status of the BTC in question in any event.
The manufacturing process is outlined below:

The engraving is deep enough to be permanent but still not detected while wallet card is in closed position. The alpha-numeric and QR code versions of the keys are engraved and inked.
After the engraving, the private key is deleted from memory of the engraving controlling computer. This computer is never connected to the internet. Only verified software is used on this computer.
A separate computer controls the camera, label maker, and database connection to the internet.

The same file is used to generate the labels.
Addresses are checked for BTC before coin Cards are offered for sale. A second stamp is placed on label when transaction confirms.
Coin is offered for sale at Amazon.com if allowed.
Coins can be exchanged as if fiat currency, with full confidence in BTC amount displayed on seal.
Sale price on Amazon will reflect BTC amount cost when loaded- possibly a great deal if BTC has gone up since loading, or actual cost of production plus 2%, plus miner fee and distribution fee.
Savings could be significant if BTC surges in value after coins are minted. coins are bought at time of minting by purchases of BTC at market price.
“Would you like to buy some free money?”
Demand for product is assured, as the value once for sale at Amazon increases over time. You will not be able to find cheaper bitcoin anywhere, sometimes. A small portion of my stock at Amazon will remain on sale at a very low price when the Bitcoin price rises. I plan on adjusting the price of my stock to reflect the current price of Bitcoin at the time; but not all of it, and not immediately. Every time the price of BTC increases by 10%, I will reset the price of my cards to initial values.
The initial values are the current price of BTC plus 2% , miner fees and distribution costs. As the market price increases after loading the cards, they are more and more of a deal for the customer.
This forms the basis of a great promotional value to sell the metal card coin wallets.
The profit.
Profit is calculated to be 2% of the BTC value when minted. Values from 0.001 BTC to 1 BTC are minted. This generates from $0.18 Cad to $180 CAD per card depending on value. I will focus on minting in the 0.01 to 0.11 BTC range, with profits of $1.80 to $19.80 a card.
customer pays: Cost of BTC when minted
miner fees, distribution fees, 2% over cost fee, Cost of manufacture. I estimate all costs not BTC or profit to be about $11 Cad per card.
Price of card is: BTC cost + 2% + $11.00 .
After purchase the card can be traded for cash, items or value of services. Miner fees are saved by every person after the initial purchaser of the card.
I want to mint around 1000 cards a day. This averages out to $18,000 profit per day.
The plan is to produce only lower value coin wallets until cash reserves are big enough to pay for larger denominations.
Customers can order from the lower denominations in stock or special order cards of any amount that they pay for at the time, shipped after production on demand.
This involves simply loading the customer’s purchase of BTC onto the card address and attaching the label.
As the price of BTC rises then stock available and loaded previously will be a special discount offer until the price resets after a ten percent increase in the BTC market value.
When selling the BTC coin metal cards at Amazon.com :

Card is dipped in clear sealer with paint filaments floating in dip tank. Also small lengths of coloured fibre are floating in the resin coating. The unique pattern formed is photographed and printed on label stored in database with item number. Private key is not stored.
Sell in vending machines in Japan, Airports,New York Subway System, Pizza Hut, etc.
On the Directly Available Bitcoin On Metal Banknote (Da Bomb), the blockchain webpage address of the public key is displayed. To check that BTC are in the account, just go to that page. Unless tampered with, BTC amount will match that shown on label.
Full label is artwork, denomination in BTC, photo and blockchain.info webpage address associated with public key.
This idea is patentable due to the unique packaging of the cold bitcoin wallet in a pull-tab metal card. In this writing read “coin” as “card” as well. The card is evolved out of a sardine can with a pull tab lid closure, with very short sides and pressed flat all around the edge.
The goal is to have a design where the pull tab can easily be removed by an adult. It should be hard for a child to open without being shown how. The card should be only slightly thicker than a regular credit card, and not open while in a leather wallet’s card holder.The pull tab should not open accidentally while being carried in a wallet. The pull tab will be manufactured so that it must be rotated by 180 degrees before opening. A small screwdriver, nail file or fingernail must be placed into a small slot to twist the pull tab into the correct position to open, before this it is restrained by a shallow metal lip on the top of the card.
Research and development are required for this idea to be a success. The manufacturing process, security features and bitcoin loading and labeling must all be tested and verified as hack and tamper-proof. The customer must never receive a hacked or empty or unloaded card after purchase and delivery.
Attempts at fraud by the customer will be obvious. Only Intact cards will be accepted for refund. Product must always ship in perfect condition, as customer can only return intact card for full refund, no opened, missing or tampered with cards will be credited to customer for refund, and this will be part of the agreement with the customer at time of purchase. Before refund the balance of the card must match the denomination on the label.
Notes on manufacturing process:



In the above I refer to not recording the private keys and deleting the server records as soon as the cards have been manufactured and checked for accuracy. please note that the recording of the private key for a certain amount of DA BOMB is required to power the FAST BITCOIN encrypted private key network.

thank-you
submitted by bubbleHead3 to emailcoin [link] [comments]

What I Learned Burning $13,867 on YouTube Ads

This is also available as a blog post with images.

What I Learned Burning $13,867 on YouTube Ads

YouTube allows you to pay to show an ad before a video plays.
Since Candy Japan is a service aimed at people with some interest in Japan, and there is an endless supply of videos aimed at the same audience, it seemed that it was worth a shot to try to advertise there. After all even a small chance at finding a new major source of conversions makes it worth a try.
Here's what I learned along the way from creating the video all the way to tweaking the ad campaign and finally looking at the results.

Creating an ad for YouTube

With AdWords you just need three lines of text, but to advertise on YouTube you need a video to show. It doesn't need to be long though. Even 30 seconds will do. But when it comes to creating video, that's actually a pretty long time.
The major types of videos are screencasts, live action or an animation. Screencasts might work well if you were trying to sell an app or a game, but wasn't really applicable for a candy subscription service. I considered a live video showing the candy boxes being delivered, or an animated explainer video. Since the people viewing my ad had a high likelihood of also liking anime, I figured an ad in a similar style might be a good match.

Process & cost of creating an animated ad

I found some examples indicating that an animation would cost about $100 - $150 per second to make. Given that a typical YouTube ad is 30 seconds, you can see this gets expensive fast.
I found two options: either hire an animation studio, or work with a freelancer. Since I had already worked with an artist to create the manga illustration for the site, I asked him if he might be able to create an animation too.
Me and my wife came up with a quick storyboard, just using stick figures. I compiled them into a slideshow, wrote the voiceover dialog and mumbled it out while flipping the slides to create the timings.
Based on our stick figure slides, the artist drew up keyframes. That moved things forward, as we could now discuss particular changes we wanted.
Based on my mumblings I ordered a voiceover with a professional actress reading out the lines properly. The voiceover cost was about $100, which seemed relatively cheap now, as I was already paying about $3000 for the animation.
With rough sketches and a voice track timed to them, work could start to turn them into final animation assets.
The whole process from finding someone able to do this to actually having an uploadable video took 4 months. I imagine that going with a studio might have been a better choice, as the cost would have been similar but the turnaround time would likely have been much faster.
Here's the end result. If the video tingles your weeaboo senses, that's intentional, as I want clearly uninterested people to skip the video as fast as possible. I'll explain why next.

You've got to spend money to spend money

Now after spending a lot of money to create an ad, you can finally get started spending even more money showing the ad to people.
YouTube itself is used to upload the video. You can make it unlisted if you want. Then to get the ad to appear before videos ("In-stream ad"), you use AdWords to create a campaign. The YouTube video ID is used to link the AdWords ad with the video.

How YouTube ads are priced

Just like AdWords, the cost of an ad view is based on an auction between advertisers. However the auction is not based on clicks, but on views. To enter this auction the minimum bid is $0.01 per view, which might sound low, but isn't really.
Internet advertising is usually priced in terms of 1000 views, called the CPM rate. The low end starts at much less than a dollar, for example advertising on Explain XKCD costs about $0.20 per 1000 views. Mid range would be single digits, say $3 for showing an ad on Cult of Mac. The upper range is low double digits, for instance a banner on bitcoin.com costs $30 per 1000 views.
Translating the YouTube ads "per view" thinking into CPM: $0.01 per view would be $10 CPM. And this is just the minimum bid that it is possible to pay. Bidding this low probably wouldn't get you many views, and I found myself bidding much higher (equivalent to actual TV ad prices) to get just enough views to determine whether my campaigns were working at all.
Now the good news: you don't have to pay if someone quickly skips your video! So if you manage to come up with an ad that is completely uninteresting to people outside of your target audience such that they skip it immediately, you don't have to pay for those views.
I found that 30% of people would actually watch our ad (70% skip). When you take into account that only 30% of people will watch the ad, a more accurate comparison with banner ads would be an interstitial ad with a $3 CPM minimum (1000 impressions * 30% view ad * $0.01).
Now you might understand why I want to get people not in my target audience to skip – it's cheaper because you don't pay when people skip your ad!

Targeting options

Compared to TV advertising, YouTube really shines with all the options you have for showing your ad to only your desired audience. The main targeting options are topics, placements and audiences. Topics and placements control which videos your ad is shown against, while audiences allow you to show ads based on who is viewing the ad.

Topics

It would be a huge pain to have to individually select thousands of videos to show your ad against. That's where topics come in, as they are pre-made groups of videos relating to a certain subject.
For example if you are trying to market a strategy game, you are in luck, because there is a topic just for that.

Placements

With placements you can show your ad before a certain video, or before all the videos of your chosen YouTube channels (example screenshot). For instance if you were selling an app for creating bingo cards, you could find all the "how to make bingo cards"-type videos and show your ad before those.
Sadly in practice I found that it was difficult to get views this way, at least for any price I was willing to test. Even when listing thousands of videos, I wasn't able to get any meaningful amount of views for my ad. It could be that a lot of the videos I tried were either unpopular, had monetization disabled or my bids were just way too low.

Audiences

With audience matching Google tries to figure out what type of a person is viewing a video, and if that matches your selection then your ad can be shown.
There are a lot of options here. You can target investors, cooking enthusiasts, people into DIY, pet lovers, gamers and more (example screenshot).
Audience matching finally gave me enough clicks to find out whether anyone ever buys anything through YouTube ads.

Keywords

In the beginning I said there are topics, placements and audiences, but actually there is another targeting method. One where I still have no idea how it is supposed to work: keywords.
I assumed to trigger a keyword match, the video title or description would have to match it. This turned out not to be the case.
For example when I tried the keyword "anime", my ad got shown before these videos: some Lithuanian song, a tutorial on how to make gnomes and some german rap video. Not exactly anime.
"Keywords can trigger your ad to show when people view related content on YouTube, websites or apps".
Apparently this "related content" is defined more broadly than I had assumed.

I know what video you saw last summer

Oh yeah, I wanted to mention a cool tracking thing YouTube provides. As you might assume, you can easily track when a click on the ad results in a sale. But the cool part is that you can also track when someone views your ad, and then a bit later types in your web address to make the purchase without ever clicking the link.
In other words you can track both people who click through an ad directly, or who see your ad and then visit your site a bit later (this is known as a "view-through conversion"). It's magic. Magical enough that you'll have to take Google's word on it that these customers actually did view the ad, since you won't be able to detect it yourself.
Besides purely trusting the reports given to me, I also added a field to my order form where I asked people "where did you hear about Candy Japan?". This confirmed that YouTube really was sending these new customers.

Tweaking the campaign: exclude!

AdWords gives you a lot of interesting data about which of your targeting options converted and which did not. Looking carefully at the data AdWords gave me, I did find a few simple ways for lowering the cost of a sale.
The key realization here is that advertising is as much about showing your ad to people, as it is about NOT showing it to those less likely to buy. An easy start is to just stop all topics or audiences that don't seem to be working.
If that still doesn't make your campaign profitable, there are broader exclusions and bid adjustments you can make based on age, gender, device, location, parental status and household income. For instance you might find that people in certain locations or age groups are less likely to buy than others.
With these adjustments I was able to significantly lower the cost per conversion for the campaign.

In conclusion, did you break even?

Nope. I lost money.
Many viewers did place an order after seeing the ad, but not enough to justify continuing the campaign. This was true even taking into account the full lifetime value of a customer. While I was not able to make the campaign break even, by tweaking the targeting options I was able to get pretty close.
For now I have stopped the campaign and will reflect a bit on what went wrong before possibly trying again.
As advice for someone else who wants to try advertising on YouTube, I'd say your product or service should make at least tens of dollars in profit to at least have a shot at making the numbers work. Advertising an app with a flat cost of only a few dollars would be unlikely to work even at the lowest bid levels.
If you do have a suitable product, be prepared to spend thousands while you tweak your campaign towards profitability! Good luck.
Hope this was helpful. If you are in the mood to try some Japanese candy, do take a look at Candy Japan.
submitted by bemmu to Entrepreneur [link] [comments]

Groestlcoin September 2019 Development Release/Update!

For a more interactive view of changes, click here
In our current world; bordering on financial chaos, with tariff wars, Brexit and hyperinflation rife, you can count on Groestlcoin to consistently produce innovation that strikes to take the power away from the few and into the many, even after a full five and a half years of solid development.
Here is what the team has already announced in the last 3 months since the last development update:

What's Being Released Today?

Groestl Nodes

What am I?

Groestl Nodes aims to map out and compare the status of the Groestlcoin mainnet and testnet networks. Even though these networks share the same protocol, there is currently no way to directly compare these coins in a single location. These statistics are essential to evaluate the relative health of both networks.

Features

Source - Website

Groestlcoin Transaction Tool

What am I?

This is a tool for creating unsigned raw Groestlcoin transactions and also to verify existing transactions by entering in the transaction hex and converting this to a human-readable format to verify that a transaction is correct before it is signed.

Features

SourceDownload

Groestlcoin AGCore

What am I?

AGCore is an Android app designed to make it easier to run a Groestlcoin Core node on always-on Android appliances such as set-top boxes, Android TVs and repurposed tablets/phones. If you are a non-technical user of Groestlcoin and want an Android app that makes it easy to run a Groestlcoin Core node by acting as a wrapper, then AG Core is the right choice for you.

What's Changed?

Source - Download

Groestlcoin Electrum

What's Changed?

Android Electrum-Specific

OSXWindowsWindows StandaloneWindows PortableLinux - Android
Server SourceServer Installer SourceClient SourceIcon SourceLocale Source

Android Wallet – Including Android Wallet Testnet

What am I?

Android Wallet is a BIP-0032 compatible hierarchial deterministic Groestlcoin Wallet, allowing you to send and receive Groestlcoin via QR codes and URI links.

V7.11.1 Changes

Groestlcoin Java Library SourceSource - DownloadTestnet Download

Groestlwallet

What am I?

Groestlwallet is designed to protect you from malware, browser security holes, even physical theft. With AES hardware encryption, app sandboxing, keychain and code signatures, groestlwallet represents a significant security advance over web and desktop wallets, and other mobile platforms.
Simplicity is groestlwallet's core design principle. Because groestlwallet is "deterministic", your balance and entire transaction history can be restored from just your recovery phrase.

iOS 0.7.3 Changes

Android v89 Changes

iOS SourceAndroid Source - Android DownloadiOS Download

Groestlcoinomi Released

What am I?

Groestlcoinomi is a lightweight thin-client Groestlcoin wallet based on a client-server protocol.

Groestlcoinomi v1.1 Desktop Changes

Groestlcoinomi Android v1.6 Changes

Groestlcoin Java Library SourceAndroid Source
Android DownloadWindows DownloadMac OS DownloadLinux Download

Groestlcoin BIP39 Tool

What's Changed?

Source - Download
submitted by Yokomoko_Saleen to groestlcoin [link] [comments]

Hello, friends - Im in need of a fellship

Hello, friends. I would like to tell you a story to beat all stories. There once was a hobbit, who lived in a hole… and this is a retelling of a very old story, or allegory, as I hope you will contact us afterwards, of how he got out of the cave he made for himself.
The Plan
We are going to monopolize a series of decentralized crypto currency networks, more specifically utility token networks, that currently exist in a state of simultaneously being over valued, and under valued, at the same time. This result was not expected at the outset of the creation of the projects that we are going to explore, but I assure you, this is the case. It is very possible that we’re looking at the cutting edge of computer science – potentially, we are looking at a rip in the space-time continuum – but what is most definite is that we’re looking at an arbitrage opportunity of historic significance. It is also potentially going to be the largest robbery perpetrated against the most deserving victims, resulting in the most benefit for the most people since Robin Hood took Prince John’s last shilling.
What Im going to describe is a little bit classical investing, a little bit of The Matrix, and a little bit Oceans 11. Its also going to be a little bit Darwinist, a little bit Wolf of Wall Street, and very self-serving all the way to the end of it, where it becomes the most beautiful gift humanity ever gave to itself. But the good part, at the very end, only happens if we can trust each other to break an unbreakable trustless system. And after we’re done doing that, we’re going to have to do something that is even more unheard of in the study of history, and a thing commonly only found in fantasy. What we’re going to try to create is the most similar to 9/11, in the sense that it is the opposite of it. Our data has found, through the study of human history, that a small group of people sufficiently funded with a relatively small sum of money are capable of taking that money, and turning it into a catalyst that results in a historic event that shapes the future for many years to come. The common term for this is a catastrophe, or cataclysmic event.
But the thesis of this computer science experiment that we’re already undertaking, but seek the support of in reaching out to you, is that we can create the opposite of a catastrophe. The term for this was coined first by JRR Tolkien – he referred to this even as a “eucatastrophe” or a “a sudden and favorable resolution of events in a story” but perhaps is most commonly known to the public as “a happy ending” – he describes this event in the The Lord of the Rings, when Frodo drops the ring into Mount Doom.
I believe it is possible to dream a happy ending into existence using computer logic and the greed of speculation about the future, rather than the real world investing in it that our market system was supposed to provide - but this is how the story begins.
Orientation
The first crypto currency, Bitcoin, is only 8 years old, and at the end of this document, you will likely understand more about crypto currency than the people who created the first one. This is possible because it is an entire sector that has been more pushed forward by dreamers and curious minds than it has been developed by venture capital interests.
Groups that demand immediate and consistent profitable returns, and measure those returns against the results of other ventures that have been agreed on to be the benchmark of success would suggest that double digit annual returns are unsustainable but its best to enjoy them while it lasts. But, we have found, using crypto currencies, that the returns traditional investing earn in a year can be gained in a day, when occupying enough market share of a market. We do this using automation to interact with the world markets in a specific way that provides liquidity and stability in markets that are traditionally the most volatile in the world. As the price moves, we tax that movement, and extract value for ourselves by way of profits from trading, and create value for the broader ecosystem in the form of price support, thus preventing the market from bottoming out (or at least falling slower because of our participation), as well as creating price stability during market highs, allowing people with non-automated trading systems to capitalize on longer periods of positive growth without missing the chance to sell while the market is up.
While our automation has sufficient funds to provide liquidity in these exchanges, we are day over day getting between 100 and 300 bps/day in earnings. To continue providing liquidity to these markets when our own reserves of coins are low, we are using a decentralized smart contract that provides credit in exchange for collateral and interest on the resources lent. By using this method, we are able to keep liquidity in these markets, and our trading system maximally effective, regardless of price movement or our own holdings of coins, and the interest on renting the coins to do it is almost negligible.
Furthermore, these markets are “utility tokens” exchanges. That is to say, these tokens only represent resources a computer network should allocate to a user based on the size of his coin holdings. There are no traditional metrics to evaluate these coins and their value, as the market price of them is simply the intersection of supply and demand on a moment to moment basis as determined by a decentralized network of users who have or want them. In short, they will never be so cheap that the price of the desk the computers sit on is greater than the price of owning a stake in that desk, because they do not represent ownership of that desk at all. Likewise, when the price is astronomically high, it can never be deemed too high, because the network it represents resource allocation of does not now, nor ever will be profitable or unprofitable. It simply will continue to be there, and allow you to interact with it, based on if you have coins for that network and how many. It is more important to understand that these coins are NOT SECURITIES than it is to understand what those coins are at all.
Going forward, a great deal of this plan and discussion will be metaphor and perhaps come across as hyperbole. The reason for this is because the systems that we are talking about are simply shuffling zeroes and ones to each other, and if I gave you the math for what is going to happen expressed in those terms, there are few or no minds on the planet that could follow the thread of this discussion in those terms at all in the context of how much data the network has if you tried to aggregate it.
The very people who create and code these networks do not even interact with them on these terms of zeroes and ones, but rather in a coding language. In this sense, even the people coding these systems are only using metaphor by interacting using the programming languages that they do. And so, in order to make this slightly less boring, and more readable, I hope you will forgive the use of language that is more descriptive than it is literal, but what is most important to remember along the way is that nothing about what is being described is a crime as the Security Exchange Commission would see it, because none of these things are securities at all.
What is the Bitcoin Network?
The first bitcoin was created 8 years ago as a result of a cryptographic computer science experiment in which a group of people who referred to themselves as “the cryptopunks” sought to create a decentralized and censorship resistant network that could keep a ledger of the location of all the bitcoins and their ownership in real time without the need for any 3rd party involvement or consent.
The entity attributed with the creation of Bitcoin, and the blockchain technology is known only as “Satoshi Nakamoto” which is commonly agreed to be a pseudonym for a person or group of persons. No one has heard from “Satoshi Nakamoto” since “he” disappeared after a colleague on the Bitcoin team sent him an email saying that the CIA had reached out to him, and wanted to talk about their research.
The security of the blockchain is provided through “proof of work” in which a network of computers around the planet attempt to use brute for number crunching to find the sum of the interior angles of a triangle in non-Euclidean geometry based on 3 points on a sphere. The interior angle of that triangle are unpredictable, because unlike in traditional geometry where the sum of the angles is always 180 degrees, when 3 points on a triangle are placed on a sphere the range can fall anywhere above 180 degrees, but not equal to it, and as high as or equal to 540 degrees. To perhaps exemplify how a triangle can have 540 degrees, consider that if you and 2 friends formed a straight line on earth, that the interior angle between each of you is 180 degrees, and there are 3 of you, and the definition of a triangle is 3 points on any given plane, thus the angle of the triangle you formed when standing in a line is 540 degrees, and cannot be any greater. The interior angle of the previous block in the chain is the determining factor in the placement of the next 3 points to be solved for in the following. The first machine to solve the question of “How many degrees are inside this triangle?” by guessing is given the privilege of taking the highest bidders for his time from the market, and performing the protocols desired by way of recording changes to the block chain, while other participants in the system are prevented from recording in this way. As the next block cannot be solved without knowing the solution to the present one, the system is trustless and immutable – it cannot be tampered with, and is governed only by math, with no gate keepers.
What is the Ethereum Network?
The Ethereum Network, or Ethereum Virtual Machine, is a set of computer protocols with a heavy emphasis on determinism as the backbone it was built on. These protocols determine the outcome of an interaction with the blockchain, and the creation of an ever-evolving record of the location and allocation of the resources these systems are built to account for.
Ethereum also has the ability for users to interact and create decentralized “smart contracts” which serve to govern the ownership and allocation of coins as agreed upon by two parties based upon outcomes that don’t require a 3rd party to execute. Metaphorically, you can think of this as an ATM, where no bank teller interacts with you, but rather a user only interacts with a machine that allows you to deposit money in your savings account, and borrow on a credit card with a limit proportional to your savings account. You could also think of it as a dooms-day device, that is going to act the way its going to act with no way to stop it once events are put in motion.
Other users of the smart contract can see how you have interacted with it because the blockchain is public and visible to the world, and if they would like, can accept the terms of that agreement, and at no time can anyone other than each of the individual users control what the users are doing. In short, there are no gatekeepers in Ethereum. There is only what exists in the network by way of code, and the infinite room to put it there if you would like to and are willing to pay for the electricity needed to carve it into existence and be maintained for the rest of time, but this is a one time payment which costs less than your credit card skims from starbucks when you buy a coffee.
What is staking?
Staking is an idea seeking to resolve the problem of energy waste that is seen in proof of work. The problem with proof of work is that it takes a tremendous amount of energy to run the level of computation that crypto networks currently use, and all but 1 of those computations actually resulted in change at all. To solve this problem, a staking system could be put in place in which rather than randomly guessing as we have been, a user would put up collateral in order to act as verification entity, where the trust of that individual’s word was determined by how large of a stake that individual might have. Anyone who felt that the outcome of an event in the blockchain was being mis-reported could put a larger stake up or proportion thereof, and which ever outcome is the most heavily staked by the user base would be deemed the “true” outcome, because there is seemingly no value is attempting to stake a “lie” or “untruth” if a greater consensus could be made, as the economic incentive is to side with the truth than the lie.
What is Augur? What is REP?
Augur is a decentralized prediction market platform. The limits for what kind of market can be made is infinite, and censorship proof, as a result of being hosted on the Ethereum Network. Users stake their REP, short for Reputation, in order to report the resolution of market outcomes. Because Ethereum has no way of drawing information from the outside world without the outside world participating with it intentionally, this hurdle is overcome by allowing users to report themselves. In exchange for doing this reporting work, people who hold REP are given a small amount of the volume of those markets (as set by the market creators) and these dividends are paid in Ether (ETH).
So an example of what kind of market could be found within Augur is “Who will win the game this weekend between the Eagles and Packers?” or “Who is going to win the next election?” or “Will the rainfall this year in Chicago exceed 22 inches?” or even “When will mankind cure death?”. There is no approval process in creating a market, only a loose form users must stick to, and the resource requirements to maintain that market on the blockchain – again, infinitely, for the rest of time if desired, in exchange for a one time payment in the present to cover the cost of electricity to manifest your will or curiosity on the network.
In the time between the creation and resolution of these markets, users can see the likelihood of the outcome of any given result represented by the confidence in that result numerically using Ether and the volume staking one outcome or another. This type of prediction oracle is called “The wisdom of the crowd” which says that it is more accurate to ask the crowd than any one person for their opinion of that outcome, as no one person has all the information on the system in question.
Computer Science and the Space-Time Continuum
We live in an uncertain time. In the very real world we live in people in our country are arming themselves against their neighbors. Gun sales at record highs. Racial tension. What would happen if my band of pirates staked 1,000,000 ETH in a prediction market paying 100,000:1 that we will all love each other and not have a race war. Do you think people who could see that uncensorable prediction market would feel more at ease, and perhaps not buy a gun, or fear their neighbor less? Do you think if we were correct about that prediction market that we would have gotten lucky, or would we have believed our own prediction into existence and created a situation where we are not only staking the future, but creating it by using greed as the fuel? If a person thought in spite of my band of misfits prediction market that there still would be a race war this year, do you think that they would spend 1,000 dollars on an AR-15 to feel safer, or stake the opposite position with those funds in that market against my declaration of peace, and rather have the keys to a wallet that can be accessed anywhere in the world with 100,000,000 dollars to buy their safety if they are ever living in a world where a gun might help?
Considering that my band of misfits doesnt need the money, nearly so much as we need a better safer world, and will have created an incentive for you to feel safer, and not buy a gun either way - do you think the future that comes to be was lucky prediction? Or market manipulation?
Would you rather have us manipulate that market? Or not?
What do you think would happen in the tech industry if we took the position that the singularity was going to happen in 2029 or not going to happen in 2028, and we staked 1 billion dollars on it happening accordingly. We would have created an incentive in a futures market for someone to take the opposite side of our action, and try to do it faster. If the singularity happened in 2028 because we took so much stupid beanie baby money and proclaimed that it was going to happen in 2029 - what just happened there? Did the winner of that bet in our futures market get lucky? Or did we just create a mechanism for greed to accelerate the end of human mortality because we said it would happen with money by staking the position that it wouldnt? What do you think would happen if we staked the temperature of the earth with that money that nearly destroyed it? What would happen if we staked the race to mars, or the moon? What if your opportunity was that no one had gone to the moon yet this year, and we had created a way to profit by just going to check that its still there? We would have created a global decentralized market for the challenges that we face as a species, and opportunity to optimize ourselves without needing permission to be the best versions we can be. All of these markets can be crowd funded into eternity for visa’s cut of your cup of coffee, and would grow infinitely from the failure of the previous moment in time until our disappointment and greed merge to collapse the infinite possibility of time and space, thus dreaming a better world into existence using man kind’s propensity for greed, and proven track record of being disappointing.
We believe that this will potentially cause dramatic harm to the crypto economy, and broader economy as we know if for a short time. We believe our system is capable of growing the coins in our custody at a rate well above 1.5% per day, because we are currently growing at 3% per day. The power of exponential growth is significant. Likely, more than you can imagine. Consider than 1 dollar today will be 38 next year at 1% growth per day. It will be over 50 at 1.1%, and at 3% growth per day, 1 dollar becomes almost 50,000 in a year. This is the data that assures me that I don’t really need your help, only would like it. Based on the coins in our custody now, and our present rate of growth and innovation, our projections put us at owning the bulk of coins in circulation in the next 19 years. But – if we were to push that timeline even a little bit, by increasing that pile of coins in the present, we accelerate the timeline exponentially. And if we increase the resources in our control by quite a bit… we believe that we will accomplish our goal in the next 2 years.
The Goal
When our Computer Science Appreciation Club has accumulated enough of the coins in the network, and wrung every bit of value that exists only as a result of greed and speculation by those who have no desire to ever use these networks, we are going to do another magic trick.
In addition to accelerating human accomplishment with the power of hope, dreams, and greed. We’re going to take all or some of the coins in our control, and we’re going to collateralize them in a money market very much like the one we are currently using to impose our will on the cryptocurrency ecosystem. We are going to issue a new coin, backed by all the coins we had accumulated previously to create a stable, immutable, uncontrollable, uncensorable, globally available currency. Then, we’re going to send the keys of an individual wallet address to every man woman and child on the planet with some of that coin in it. And we are going to put some more of that coin in it every day. So that at no point, will there be a day where someone can say they did not have two nickels to rub together. We believe no one will ever say they didn’t have two hundred dollar bills together, when we are successful, ever again.
But this is not a selfless act by my merry band of misfits and pirates. Quite the contrary. We believe that nearly everyone on the planet that we interact with is disappointing. That the chimpanzee meat computer of our present hardware is ill suited to optimizing for the future in the present paradigm. We are giving away this money at that point, so that everyone can stop being such a disappointment to us. We are tired of the experience where an hourly employee gives us bad customer service because they are not paid enough to put up with our bullshit. We hope to make a world where people interact with each other because they want to, not because they have to. We are going to be filthy rich, when we are successful, or for that matter if we fail, my band of misfits. And we are worried when that happens about how long before it is that men with guns come for what is ours. We don’t know if these men with guns will come from the governments of the world, or from those envying what we have.
We seek to become the golden goose of the planet, and in return we would like to not fear slaughter while we try this. In this arrangement, we look only for your cooperation, and in return, will share an infinite sum of golden eggs with you, and everyone you know. And when we do this, we will not fear the envy of our neighbors, nor the governments who command the armies it would take to stop us. We will protect the people from their governments, and themselves. And in time, we hope the governments will likewise protect us from their people, though letting go of power will no doubt be hard to swallow. The only thing that can stop us from doing this is if someone buys the coins that give us power from us. And in doing so, would give us the wealth we need to accomplish these things in the real world. If we are not bought out, we will accumulate enough coins in the Ethereum Network that we can impose our will upon it, until we can deliver on our promises of a better world because we control it completely.
In these sense, we have already won. A better world is already here, as certainly as we have already dreamed the path to it. We plan on out-staking a better world into existence, regardless of what the future currently holds in store for us now. In short, we are going to lie to an unbreakable trustless system until it births the world we’re lying about into the realm of what is real. In shorter, we are going to believe our bullshit more than you cannot believe it, until we have delivered what we promised.
The Problem
The problem with growing as fast as the control our Computer Science Appreciation Club is over the Ethereum Network is that its too fast. We’re growing our sum of coins so fast, that to an outside observer you might think we were a hedge fund of some sort at best. But at worst, you might think we were a criminal enterprise. Legitimate enterprises don’t grow at 1% or more daily infinitely, but we do. And if you were not as educated as you are, now, at this point in reading this, when you saw how “rich” we were, you might think someone should try to stop it. We would ask, for your sake, and our own, that you don’t – we don’t need you to do anything, and the world is going to get better from here.
The problem is that if we were a hedge fund, which we aren’t, then we would need to file paperwork to take control of other people’s funds. If these were securities, the acts we were going to commit would be best exemplified in Wolf of Wall Street, but we’re going to do it on a much greater scale with computers. Lucky for us, these coins are not securities, they are less regulated than the gold in World of Warcraft you can buy with your credit card, or the skins in League of Legends. These coins are worth nothing, and everything, at the same time.
But the bigger problem, is that I cannot stop you from sending “money” to my “hedge fund” when/if you sent ether to my wallet address where we are running this experiment. It’s a decentralized system, and its open source, and completely public, if we tried to hide it would only work for so long until an internet detective found it. If someone was to find the address of our computer science appreciation club, we could not stop them from sending coins there. But, since we cannot stop them, we would like them not to waste their time looking – the address is this on the Ethereum Network:
0xCDF449b5c9Bd2A725319163C3E7f2d7222c4d8c9
We have the best legal minds on the planet trying to solve this puzzle with us, and we’ll get the paperwork straight soon – if the Winklevoss Twins don’t think it’s a conflict of interest.
If reading this letter, you find your brain to be so tickled by it - that regardless of the forces that seek to keep us from accumulating enough resources to do this in two years, you wish to believe in it more than those opposing forces, and in doing so stake your opinion about what the future you are going to live will be, I would not ask you to waste a moment of your life looking for us, because we are here to be found. We cannot count our coins as fast as they grow, but our collective efforts will be carved into the eternal stone of the Ethereum network, and I promise we’re going to give back all of these coins to the world, when we’re done fixing a few things.
But there is another problem, and its far worse than making “money” too fast - just as we are going to bet that no one goes to the moon until someone does every year forever just for fun, it is possible to bet on the absence of a war until a war exists because your certainty manifests it into being to spite you. The same market we hope to keep the world at peace, and put their fears to rest from the uncertainty of where we’re going next is also a mechanism to game our system, and bet on a war happening to get rich. But there is a way to stop this – we’re going to accumulate the majority of the REP tokens, and if we have 51% of the circulation, if someone tries to beat us at our own game and bring a war into existence – then we would be able to stop the unstoppable machine from making them rich. We will also have the wallet addresses of the people who needed the insurance policy we are going to unfairly deny, to make them whole, and they would have neighbors with means to support them while we unfucked the pooch. We would have a failsafe to prevent a war from coming to be, because we are so sure there will not be one that it might happen. This, above all else, will back the new currency we are going to issue to the planet. Our new currency will not be backed by gold, or equity, or faith in a flawed system. It we be backed by trust of mankind invested back into itself that we will not go back to a system that will tolerate scarcity, or war, or hunger in exchange for the certainty of the absence of these things. No one will need to ask what is in our vault, or need to audit it, until the day comes where maybe someone will try to beat us at our own game. If that happens – we’re going to need the world to give back the currency we gave it as our collective reward for our cooperation, to free the tool we need to stop violent men from becoming rich men at the cost of a world without poverty, because it will be the immutable collateral backing the currency we are going to give you.
As a disclaimer, Im not somebody who has the background you might think someone should have for this – Im just a hobbit. Im not a hedge fund manager, or a computer science engineer. I raise pigs, and ducks, and geese that need some help, too – because we aren’t eating them enough to keep them existing in our food supply. It is a more fun paradox than this, and I get to solve that one by cooking dinner for some friends, and telling stories when this adventure is over. It feels a little like The Shire there, where I’ve been hiding melting my ego with psychedelics in the sunshine while salting pork, and listening to podcasts from Rogan, Duncan, Bart Chystler, Tom and Krista, some tinfoil hat guys, and seeing how abundant a life can be given only a little bit of hopium and room for creativity, and Im eager to get there and back, again. I very much look forward to seeing what we’re all capable of, when we’re given a chance. But we’re going to have to put a little faith in a system that doesn’t need faith to operate - so that we can fix a different system that has never needed it more. I think we’re going to be able to do that for us all, but I might very well be lying to you, and not know it yet – at least, that’s the plan.
Ironically, salting pork is what brought me to understand what is worth something, and what isn’t. When they used to talk about a “salary” or say that you were “worth your salt” was because all that you needed to live was enough salt to keep your meat from rotting when you cured it into bacon and hams at the end of the season. The salt’s value wasn’t while it was in the bag, it was while it was preserving your food when times were hard and things were scarce. In the modern time, a salary is what gets bigger when a emloyer make his employees poorer. Now, we have made laws to respect each other by race and religion and where who-sticks-what-where, but made it legal and standard to reduce someone’s value to an integer value of currency per moment in time, and the currency is backed by oppression of man-against-man (chicks, too). To increase your integer value per moment in time, that gain must come from another? Are we the only people who think this is inherently disrespectful to your fellow man even if you don’t call him a “fag” to his face like we used to when we were kids and it meant “I love you, man – but Im too afraid of being called gay to say it”.
In the present what is perhaps the most scarce of all, are places where you are free to be an animal at all, let alone places where you are free to be the lion you might be and not know it. We are so caught up in having agreed upon contracts so that we don’t get fucked, that we don’t have trust or honor that is held between lions when the zebra meat is abundant and they eat shoulder to shoulder without worry of each other. We live in a time where there is quite literally more deer on the planet than there has been in some time, and yet we imagine something would keep us as lions from preying on them in the real world. But, to us, as long as you are giving the animals fair chase, there is no time that feeding yourself as the king of the jungle is wrong, if you are hungry. And Im here to tell the people who think they can stop us, that we are giving you fair chase. We will be in every exchange on the planet soon, giving you chances to get on or off this train. And when you buy, it will be from us. When you sell, it will be to us. Your only safe market is the door out of here in ETH/USD and BTC/USD because we will not be selling our coins, only buying more. And every time you do anything other than leave your coins on the table, and take that worthless paper money with you, we will grow that much stronger. If you buy the coins we want, you will give us power in the real world. If you sell them, we will get them cheaper. When your fear or FOMO has sent you zigging… or for that matter zagging, one of my lions will catch you. We are not asking for your support by way of co-operation, we are asking for it by absence of resistance from a better world than this one. If you will not give us your coins, then we ask that you do not trade them. Keep the keys, or burn them and count them as your contribution without us knowing my band of pirates owes you a favor. Our only compromise is to remove them from circulation, as in this decentralized system, that is the only place we cannot reach them. But co-operation will get us there far, far sooner. To quote a most wise computer scientist, “Resistance is futile, you will be assimilated.” We have re-programmed the Kobayashi Maru. My fellowship and I have set out for Mount Doom. And you will be skeptical of us, all the way until you aren’t. And then, I would ask for only your belief – perhaps in no one more then yourselves, that you could be the type of person to rise to a challenge that will face us that we haven’t seen yet. But maybe you can rise to face the challenges that have always been faced, by mother and fathers, and children – spending time together, eating real and wholesome food in good company as often as you can. Those challenges are the simple ones, and we have had the answer for longer than we’ve lost them. You just need to be worth your salt.
If you need someone with a stronger background to support my position, I cant give that to you right now, because Satoshi Nakamoto himself only 8 years of experience. But someone smarter than me said something that sent me down this road while I had smoked enough to dissolve the prison I had made for myself, and it might help you. You can watch it here:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D1R-jKKp3NA
I am the son of this good, good, man - who cannot or will not believe this is possible. https://www.linkedin.com/in/peterhchapman/
He is the former CEO of Ray Kurzwiel's largest portfolio holding (who first conceptualized the singularity). He now works a few steps away from Jeff Bezos. And if you do not believe me, dont worry, because he didnt get past the first paragraph of this story.
But I have melted my ego time and time again under the simmering heat of psychedelics, standing alone in a field with pigs, but also in the company of minds longing to break free when they tune into this podcast. And time and time again when I have nothing of an ego to call my own, I cannot shake the feeling that I am the chance event needed to occur within an economic engine that must break so it can be rebuilt better. Outside of the Duncan Trussel Family Hour, I think the Joe Rogan subreddit might be the largest and most public reserve of belief in things that have no reason to believe in aside from because they might work, and I am one of you.
I have no intention of allowing my father's disbelief to become the first gate keeper I have encountered that can keep me from asking Ray Kurzwiel to try to let us stake the Singularity into existence by betting it cant happen in our life time. I have no intention of letting my father stop me from asking Bezos to let me bet that no one will go to the moon, until someone rises to the occasion to prove him wrong.
I need your help, and this is as far as I've gotten, but I dont know if I can go further alone. I seek fellowship, on this quest, and I have come here to what is potentially the Rivendel of our time - Reddit and the JRE
submitted by CompSciAppreciation to DTFH [link] [comments]

Groestlcoin Release September 2018

Introduction

As always, the past 3 months since 22nd June have been crazy busy. The bears might still be around, but the show must go on and of course has not slowed the Groestlcoin development team in the slightest. Here’s a quick overview of what has already happened since the last release: - Integrated into the bitbns exchange, with the ability to buy Groestlcoin directly with the Indian Rupee. - Groestlcoin Rebrand Vote – Whilst there was much talk and push for a rebrand vote, the overall result was almost unanimously in favour of keeping our unique and conversation-starting name. With just 83 votes to Rebrand, and 2577 votes to No Rebrand. Thank you for all who voted, the funds raised are being used to fund ongoing hosting and development costs. - Integrated into the Cryptobridge exchange. Cryptobridge is a popular decentralised exchange where you always hold the private keys to your funds, only YOU have access to them. - Groestlcoin has been added to SimpleSwap – Groestlcoin can now be swapped with over 100 other cryptocurrencies, without signing up! - Groestlcoin has been added to UnoDax, one of the leading cryptocurrency exchanges in India, with TUSD, BTC and INR trading pairs. - Groestlcoin has been added to SwapLab.cc, where you can buy Groestlcoin using Bitcoin and over 50 other altcoins. Purchasing with VISA/Mastercard is coming VERY SOON. Discussed later: - Groestlcoin has been listed on #3 largest exchange in the world on volume, Huobi Global! More on this to come further on in the announcements. - Groestlcoin has been added to the Guarda Multi-Currency Wallet. - Groestlcoin has been added to Melis Multi-Device, Multi-Account, Multi-Platform, Multi-Signature advanced wallet! Already this list is far more than most other cryptocurrencies have achieved in the past 3 months. But this is just the tip of the iceberg of what has been developed.

What's been Happening?

GRSPay Released

We are so excited for this, that it has it's own separate reddit thread. Head over there now at https://www.reddit.com/groestlcoin/comments/9ikr5m/groestlcoin_releases_grspay/? to see more on this!
https://www.melis.io/assets/logo-navbar-4b6f0d372f15b2446d3fa4c68f346e4fb08ee113941186cee58fd6135f3f8b7d.svg

Melis Wallet

The the most advanced wallet for Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Litecoin and now Groestlcoin.
With Melis you have the complete control of your bitcoins and private keys, you can define spending limits policies and make use of two or more factors authentication. Melis is open source, published on GitHub.

How Melis Works?

You can create as many accounts as you want. An account is a part of your wallet that can be customised to your requirements. You can choose how many co-signers are required to spend funds. The accounts are completely independent and act like separate wallets from each other but can be accessed via the same details. A core feature of Melis is the ability to set a ‘primary’ device. With this you can set an account as ‘Secure’ so it is only viewable (and accessible at all) from the Primary device. You can have a savings account hidden from the outside world whilst also having your ‘spending’ funds available on the go. With Melis you can create a multi-signature account between N people, where up to N signatures are required to sign a transaction, choosing if any of those should be mandatory.
Core Features:
https://guarda.co/assets/images/1PGo4ID.svg?1537791124643

Guarda Wallet

Safer than ever! Desktop Light Wallet - Anonymous and fast!
With Guarda Multi-currency Desktop Light Wallet you don’t need to register. Guarda has no access to your private keys or funds. You can receive, send, store, buy and exchange cryptocurrencies in complete anonymity and safety. All these features are available on Linux, Windows or MacOS. Choose the one that suits you!
More info about Guarda wallet on www.guarda.co
https://holytransaction.com/images/logo.png

Integrated into HolyTransaction

What is HolyTransaction?

HolyTransaction gives users access to the crypto world with a universal cryptocurrency wallet and instant exchange.

Features

For more information, visit Holy Transaction here.
https://www.groestlcoin.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/next-grs-groestlcoin.jpg

Integrated into NEXT Wallet

What is NEXT?

NEXT is a modern, next-generation stylish open-source Desktop wallet.

Features

For more information, visit NextWallet here.
https://blockchainfinancial.com/mediaserve2018/09/admin-06143647-bcf_logo_vec_256x256.png

Integrated into Blockchain Financial

What is Blockchain Financial?

Blockchain Financial is a set of web based services for individuals and companies that want to make things happen with the Cryptocurrencies Ecosystem. - For those that don't know anything about cryptocurrencies, we offer tools that will let them receive, send and operate with an assortment of coins. - For those that are already riding the wave, we offer tools that will let them do all those things that they weren't able to do.

Blockchain Financials mission

We're not here to reinvent the wheel. We're here to make it run smoother for you, and we provide some of the most useful services you'll find on the internet, made in a way that is easy to understand and use on a daily basis. In short, we're a bunch of people that claim to be Crypto Evangelists. We strongly believe in cryptocurrencies, and our main promise is to push them up so more people get involved and take all the advantages they offer.

More information from Blockchain Financial

Back in 2014, the world was taken by storm when Facebook approved the first cryptocurrencies tipping apps. The first was for Dogecoin, and the second was for multiple coins.
The project was hosted on whitepuma.net, and persisted for almost two years, built up a massive user community and gave a home to Bitcoin, Litecoin, Dogecoin and dozens of other bitcoin-based altcoins.
After very active months, the tipping hype started to fade away. Then, the developers decided to jump into the next stage: bringing not only tipping, but also mining and a widget that could be embedded on websites to allow everyone to accept payments. Sadly, the work was never completed because the project started to require an unsustainable amount of resources. Then, in a painful decision, a shutdown was announced by December 2015.
A couple of months after whitepuma.net was closed, the source code was released by its creator as Open Source on GitHub. But it wasn't maintained.
Now, some of the original members of the dev and admin teams gathered up with a handful of the WhitePuma's elite users, and decided to make something good with the best pieces of the old source code. That, with fresh new ideas and the power of the BardCanvas engine, synthesized the core of Blockchain Financial.
More info about Blockchain Financial wallet on .
For more information, visit [Blockchain Financial](www.blockchainfinancial.com)
https://www.huobi.com/image/logo.aeb4723.svg

Groestlcoin Listed on Huobi

Who are Huobi?

Huobi was founded in China and is now based in Singapore, with offices in Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and the North America, currently sitting #3 in volume on Coinmarketcap. Huobi is a great leap forward for our growing presence in Asia and we are very excited to be listed here!
You can find the official Huobi announcement here.

Groestlcoin Core v2.16.3 - Please Update ASAP

A new major Groestlcoin Core version 2.16.3 is now available for download which includes both a Denial of Service component and a critical inflation vulnerability, so it is recommended to upgrade to it if you are running a full Groestlcoin node or a local Groestlcoin Core wallet.
v2.16.3 is now the official release version of Groestlcoin Core. This is a new major version release with a very important security updates. It is recommended to upgrade to this version as soon as possible. Please stop running versions of Groestlcoin Core affected by CVE-2018-17144 ASAP: These are 2.13.3 and 2.16.0.
As a result in this, all exchanges and services have been asked to upgrade to this version, so please be patient if wallets go in to maintenance mode on these services.

What's new in version v2.16.3?

This is a major release of Groestlcoin Core fixing a Denial of Service component and a critical inflation vulnerability (https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2018-17144) exploitable by miners that has been discovered in Groestlcoin Core version 2.13.3 and 2.16.0. It is recommended to upgrade to 2.16.3 as soon as possible. If you only occasionally run Groestlcoin Core, then it's not necessary to run out and upgrade it right this second. However, you should upgrade it before you next run it. If you know anyone who is running an older version, tell them to upgrade it ASAP. Stored funds are not at risk, and never were at risk. At this time we believe over half of the Groestlcoin hashrate has upgraded to patched nodes. We are unaware of any attempts to exploit this vulnerability. However, it still remains critical that affected users upgrade and apply the latest patches to ensure no possibility of large reorganizations, mining of invalid blocks, or acceptance of invalid transactions occurs.

The Technicals

In Groestlcoin Core 2.13.3, an optimization was added (Bitcoin Core PR #9049) which avoided a costly check during initial pre-relay block validation that multiple inputs within a single transaction did not spend the same input twice which was added in 2012 (Bitcoin Core PR #443). While the UTXO-updating logic has sufficient knowledge to check that such a condition is not violated in 2.13.3 it only did so in a sanity check assertion and not with full error handling (it did, however, fully handle this case twice in prior to 2.1.0.6). Thus, in Groestlcoin Core 2.13.3, any attempts to double-spend a transaction output within a single transaction inside of a block will result in an assertion failure and a crash, as was originally reported. In Groestlcoin Core 2.16.0, as a part of a larger redesign to simplify unspent transaction output tracking and correct a resource exhaustion attack the assertion was changed subtly. Instead of asserting that the output being marked spent was previously unspent, it only asserts that it exists. Thus, in Groestlcoin Core 2.16.0, any attempts to double-spend a transaction output within a single transaction inside of a block where the output being spent was created in the same block, the same assertion failure will occur. However, if the output being double-spent was created in a previous block, an entry will still remain in the CCoin map with the DIRTY flag set and having been marked as spent, resulting in no such assertion. This could allow a miner to inflate the supply of Groestlcoin as they would be then able to claim the value being spent twice.
Groestlcoin would like to publicly thank Reddit user u/Awemany for finding CVE-2018-17144 and reporting it (https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-core-dev/2018-Septembe000064.html). You deserve gratitude and appreciation from cryptoworld, and you have ours. If you want to support him for his work, please consider donating to him on his bitcoin cash address: bitcoincash:qr5yuq3q40u7mxwqz6xvamkfj8tg45wyus7fhqzug5
http://i.imgur.com/3YhyNZK.png

Groestlcoin Electrum-GRS 3.2.2 - Ledger & Trezor Edition

What is Electrum-GRS?
Electrum-GRS is a lightweight "thin client" groestlcoin wallet Windows, MacOS and Linux based on a client-server protocol. Its main advantages over the original Groestlcoin client include support for multi-signature wallets and not requiring the download of the entire block chain.

Changes: